Buganda, the largest of the medieval kingdoms in present-day Uganda, became an important and powerful state during the 19th century. Established in the late 14th century along the shore of Lake Victoria, it evolved around its founding kabaka (king) Kintu, who came to the region from northeast Africa. Kintu, who arrived as the leader of multiple clans, conquered the area, defeating the last indigenous ruler, Bemba Musota, to establish his new state. Kintu, however, ordered the new clans to intermarry with the indigenous people creating the Buganda ethnic group.
Thirty six kabakas or kings followed Kintu, who mysteriously disappeared after laying Buganda’s foundation. While in the early centuries the kings ruled at the mercy of the clan heads, by 1700 they gained more centralized authority over the kingdom.
During the 16th century, Buganda began 300 years of territorial expansion, annexing or conquering a number of chiefdoms and expanding from three provinces to twelve by 1890. Buganda’s expansion came as a result of its military superiority over its neighbors.
Buganda is one of the numerous kingdoms that sprung up after the collapse of the vast chwezi empire,hence its believed that it also originated from the large chwezi empire.
The kingdom got established in the north west part of lake Victoria and east of Bunyoro,make it in between lake Kyoga and lake Albert.
The earliest inhabitant of this place are believed to have been the Bantu that migrated from the Congo basin,who live in the present day Busiro, Kyadondo and Mawokota.
The origin of this great kingdom are not clear to historians however a number of theories have been pit up.
According to the oral tradition in Buganda the first Uganda ruler was Kaita-Kintu who is widely beloved to have come from side of mountain Elgon, He passed through Bugishu, Budama and Busoga finally to Buganda where he seized power from the clan headland crowned himself the head of all clans Ssaabataka.
He is said to have come with thirteen or fourteen of the present day clans of Buganda.
According to the tradition in Bunyoro,the founder of Buganda was Kato-Kimera who came from Bunyoro.
He was believed to have been a twin brother to rukidi mpuga the founder of the boot dynasty in Bunyoro.
Its beloved that Kato Kimera curved buganda from Bunyoro-Kitara kingdom which was on the collapse from bunyoro.he is beleived to have come with five to six present day clans of Buganda.
Other traditions believed that Buganda originated from the Bantu clans that lived in the areas way back and others came from eastern Uganda .
Other clans of Buganda are said to have come from ssese islands.
Buganda started as a small nucleus state comprising of only Busiro, Mawokota,and Kyadondo around the 15th century.
The Uganda who inhabit this Ares belong to wider group of interlacustrine Bantu and form the largest Bantu grouping in Uganda.
By the 17 the century Buganda had expanded to cover Singo, Gomba,Butambala and it was Kabaka Katerega who captured these counties from Bunyoro.
Under kabaka Jjunju,Buganda expanded to include Buddu and Kooki which were annexed from Bunyoro.
By the half of 19th century Kabaka Mawanda captured the counties of Bulemeezi,Kyaggwe and Bugerere. Making Buganda the largest kingdom in the interlacustrine region by then.
With the help of the British Kabaka Muteesa brought in the lost counties of Buyaga and Bugangaizi and Buluri which were annexed from Bunyoro.
The kingdom of Buganda is located on the shores of Lake Victoria with in the interlacustrine region. The Baganda are believed to belong to a group of western Bantu.
The origin of the Baganda is unclear but they are mainly two theories that explain its origin i.e. the Kiganda and Bunyoro tradition theory.
According to the Kiganda theory, the founder of Buganda was Kintu who was believed to have come from the direction of mountain Elgon 1314 AD via Bugisu, Budama, Busoga and finally to the shores of Lake Victoria to present day Buganda. Around thirteen to fourteen of the present day clans are said to have come with Kintu.
Another theory says that Buganda was founded by Kato Kimera, a twin brother of Isingoma Rukidi Mpuuga who founded the Bito dynasty. About five to six clans are said to have come from Bunyoro.
Yet Buganda is one of the states that broke away after the collapse of Bunyoro Kitara Empire under the Bachwezi.
Buganda started as a small state made up of Busiro, Mawokota and Kyadondo counties and later expanded to include former parts of Bunyoro and Ssese Islands.
The expansion began around 17th century during the reign of Kateregga who expanded the boundary of Buganda to Ssingo, Kyagwe, Gomba and Butambala.
Around the 18th century Buganda waged wars of expansion against the Banyoro in which she captured Buddu which had iron. Between 1814-1831, Sekamanya annexed Bwera, Buwekula, and Koki to Buganda.
Around 19th century, the areas of Bugerere, Bulemezi were annexed to Buganda from Bunyoro when the British gave guns to Buganda who defeated all neighbors.
In the 1900 Buganda agreement, the British gave Buyaga and Bugangaizi to Buganda as a reward for their collaboration with the British in crushing Bunyoro.